Aim: The justification of the need for organised measures in the context of the inevitability of change, and the identification of ways of measuring the effectiveness of an organisation and selected techniques which improve its functioning.

Introduction: Two thousand five hundred years ago the philosopher Heraclitus (540–480 BC) coined the expression panta rhei (everything flows, nothing is constant). It is an aphoristic expression referring to a theory called variabilism. The main features of the theory are constant becoming and evanescence resulting from the endless clashing of opposites. The issue considered in this article is the system set up to improve the effectiveness of achieving goals. This self-regulation is an effect of the confrontation of two different tendencies: morphostasis – keeping its structure unchanged, and morphogenesis – struggling for changes. Their presence is strongly connected with attempting to maintain the external and internal balance. This causes changes in every system. It is significant that changes should be expected by individuals who created the system and should increase its effectiveness. The tools for measuring effectiveness are based mainly on the principle of rational management – a surplus of effects over expenditures. Starting from this principle and the structure of systems, we see that in every system there are subsystems supporting the primary subsystem. Therefore, any reduction in the size of these subsystems, while maintaining their functionality, contributes significantly to the reduction of expenditures and the maintenance of effects at the same level, and the increased effectiveness of the whole system. Productivity is an important indicator in the assessment of the effectiveness of actions – partial or total

Methodology: Analysis, synthesis and generalisation were used in the research. It was based on respected theories, techniques and methods of organised measures

Conclusions: The need for improving organised measures is affected by such factors as: – everything around us is changeable, which is why our efforts must be subject to changes; – our efforts should be aimed at increasing effectiveness; – in each organised measure there is a surplus of the potential of a specific part of resources over effects. In an effort to increase effectiveness, the surplus should be used or reduced.

Keywords: organised measures, management

Type of article: review article