Aim: The purpose of this work was to perform numerical simulation of fire development in a road tunnel using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) programme. On this basis, an analysis of the impact of the fire source's power on the effectiveness of the fire ventilation system was performed. The first stage of the work presents issues related to fire development. The focus was on presenting the theoretical part of the parameters, such as smoke propagation, fire development, visibility, heat release rate and maximum temperature. The next stage of the article focuses on presenting the theoretical foundations about the Fire Dynamics Simulator program. The last stage of the work contains a description of the conducted research, as well as the analysis and comparison of results. In the research part, simulations of 4 scenarios were carried out, depending on the fire power. The collected data was analysed and conclusions were drawn. It was checked how a fire in a confined space behaves depending on the power of the source. In addition, the effectiveness of the ventilation system used was tested. Introduction: Numerical simulations are used to improve fire safety in road tunnels. Numerical calculations allow to assess the suitability of the fire protection systems used. One such programme is the Fire Dynamics Simulator, which was discussed at work. In addition, theoretical issues related to fire development were presented. Issues such as maximum temperature, visibility, the process of smoke propagation and the power of fire were raised. Fire ventilation systems that are used in road tunnels are presented in the diagrams, along with the principles of their operation discussed. In total, numerical simulations with fire performance were performed: 202 MW, 157 MW, 119 MW and 67 MW.
Methodology: The article was compiled on the basis of the review of literature available in the publications of the results of scientific works on the dynamics of the fire phenomenon in road tunnels, as well as numerical CFD studies in the Fire Dynamics Simulator program.
Conclusions: Based on the numerical tests carried out, the phenomena that occur during a fire in a road tunnel are approximated. The data received can be analysed and interpreted, and conclusions can be drawn to increase safety in tunnels. One of the most important aspects that has a direct impact on the safety of people during a fire is the selection of an appropriate ventilation system. There are many system solutions on the market that have both pros and cons. In the cases studied, longitudinal ventilation was used along with two exhaust fans. Longitudinal ventilation generated airflow at the velocity of 2 m / s in the entire tunnel cross-section. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the airflow rate of 2 m / s limits the spread of heat at a height of 1.8 m from the ground level of the tunnel, regardless of the power of fires adopted in the tests. The earliest temperature increase occurred for a 119 MW fire, and at the latest for a fire of 67 MW. In the further parts of the tunnel, the temperature changed in a narrow range and did not exceed 22˚C. The temperature over the source reached 700˚C, while the centre of the fire reached the maximum temperature of 1200˚C
Keywords: fire ventilation, fires in road tunnels, fire modelling
Type of article: original scientific article