Aim: The aim of the article is to discuss, using literature on the subject, the results of scientific research and fire tests devoted to lithium-ion batteries and electric-powered vehicles, as well as various methods and techniques for extinguishing them. The presentation of these issues is important in terms of identifying the hazards present in construction objects where electric vehicles are parked and charged, as well as conducting effective and safe rescue operations during incidents involving them.

Introduction: The development of electromobility, including the growing number of electric vehicles, poses new challenges for fire protection, both in the context of conducting rescue operations and the safety of parking and charging these vehicles at construction objects. Fires on lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles follow a different pattern than fires on conventional energy sources. This includes the causes of their origin, the course and methods of extinguishing them, as well as the dangers to those in their zone, including from the toxic products of combustion that are emitted. Consideration of the occurrence of these risks is particularly important in underground infrastructure, where firefighting is more difficult and the ability to eliminate the toxic products is limited. The article discusses the results of scientific research and fire tests involving lithium-ion batteries and electric vehicles, taking into account different methods and techniques for extinguishing them, conducted in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, South Korea, the United States of America and Poland, among others.

Methodology: The authors prepared the article based on a review and analysis of the results of scientific and experimental research, as well as on the literature.

Conclusions: The growing number of electric vehicles increases the likelihood of accidents and fires involving them. This poses a challenge for rescue operations involving the vehicles mentioned above. An analysis of the literature on the subject leads to the conclusion that the catalogue of risks during rescue operations involving electric vehicles is different from that of conventionally powered vehicles. These risks require research, analysis, evaluation and validation.

Keywords: fire safety, fire protection, electric vehicles, lithium-ion battery, rescue operations

Type of article: review article


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