Aim: The aim of this article is to present the conclusions of a research conducted in the area of identifying threats to the economic interests of the state related to the trading of cryptoassets, as well as the presentation of legal solutions functioning in the cryptoasset environment and possible remedial actions to be taken by the state authorities competent in this regard.
Introduction: Due to the technological features, undefined legal status, regulatory and organizational risks of this instrument, the threats related to the trading of cryptoassets are one of the most important current threats from the point of view of the economic security of the country. They are identified both by domestic and foreign financial market supervision authorities, tax and law enforcement authorities, and those dealing with counteracting money laundering and the financing of the terrorists. The article presents the identified risk areas, legal regulations in the field of trading in these assets, and regulatory perspectives. An attempt was also made to describe the actions necessary to be taken to mitigate the threats.
Methodology: In this work, theoretical research was used, such as: analysis of literature, on legal and strategic studies as well as industry literature, synthesis, generalization and inference. In addition, analysis was carried out of the legal acts related to the regulation of the market of cryptoassets, international strategic documents describing this market and the Polish financial supervision. Draft legal acts of a legislative nature were also presented.
Conclusions: The market of cryptoassets is subject to constant legal, organizational and institutional transformations. Its socio-economic environment is also changing. Due to the characteristics of cryptoassets, their dispersed and unregulated nature, institutions of this market, both entities participating in transaction brokerage, as well as natural persons, can be used for money laundering, concealing property from various forms of crime. However, the identified vulnerabilities do not pose a significant threat to the economic security of the country – they are of a sectoral nature. The relevant state institutions undertake specific activities in order to counteract threats, both of a legal, institutional and organizational nature.
Keywords: cryptoassets, threats to economic security, legal regulations in the area of cryptoassets, counteracting money laundering and financing of terrorism, mitigation of threats related to cryptoassets
Type of article: review article